The paper includes a section on data standards and interoperability, though the emphasis is on technical standards. The section discusses the tension between competition and consumer protection. However, I don't see any attention to the business data level.
I understand differing technical standards will cause investment headaches for buyers. But this isn't just VHS-vs-Betamax all over again. Market dominance in a technical standard no longer guarantees dominance in content provision. Specifically, the promise of the IoT is a vision of machines communicating with each other about things that matter to humans. For this promise to be realized, we need agreement on definitions and structures for the things-of-human-interest.
So, off the top of my head, I'd say an agreed, stable, and comprehensive business data definition for PARKING SPACE is going to be more important to making this corner of the IoT world a success than how cars, parking lots, satellite systems, and mobile devices chatter to each other. The machine-things can use all the mapping and translation layers they want. As long as they speak human to humans. Download EPRS_BRI(2015)557012_EN